# Quantum computing

Fundamentals

How the information stored in the computer? 0’s and 1’s

What ever the information given, it will convert to binary format which machine can understand and store it.

For example 4 -> 0100

• 0- 1st bit
• 1-2nd bit
• 0- 3rd bit
• 0- 4th bit

So each bit is stored in 1 transistor.

Transistors

• Transistor is nothing but its act like a switch on/off, if its ON then the value will be 1, OFF – 0
• In Traditional computers we may use trillion number of transistors inside the processor to perform the operation.
• The speed will be total number transistors and the frequency of the processor.
• It works on the probability – not immediately, it will take some time to process the data.

Atom

Atoms are made of extremely tiny particles called protons,  neutrons, and electronsProtons and  neutrons are in the center of the atom, making up the nucleus. Electrons surround the nucleus. Protons have a positive charge. Electrons have a negative charge.

Sub-Atomic

• Sub-atomic is not obey the physics, so it is called Quantum physics.
• The electron is not in a consistent state, its spinning up and spinning down when we do the measurement so its really challenging to the scientists.
• But they are taking that as advantages.

Moor’s Law Statistics

Gordon Moore the co-founder of Intel

• Moore’s law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.
• Observed and predicted in 1965
• 1965-2012 period the theory is working perfect
• If we reduce less than 5nm, it will create Quantum tunneling problem.
• i4 and i5 process transistor size is 14nm, its 500 times lesser than our 1 red blood cell.

Quantum tunneling

Energy loss will be happening when electron flow from one side another side

Bits Vs Qubits

Principles

Super position

We don’t know which position the electron is currently, it may be 0 or 1

Example

Entanglement

• Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance.
• The whole concept of Quantum Entanglement is about correlation. What Quantum Entanglement means is that if one of the two Entangled particles are to be observed then it’ll automatically determine the results for the remaining one.

Scenario

Scientists Propose a ‘Mirror Universe’ Where Time Moves Backwards

• There will be 1 lakh cash bag in one room out of 1000 rooms, the normal computers will compare each and find out, but quantum computer will find easily at a time open 500 rooms and check.
• Google is lead – announced 72 qubit universal quantum computers (2^72) – learn AI, molecular structure, medical things.

Applications of quantum computing

• Medicine & Materials.
• complexity of molecular and chemical interactions.
• Supply Chain & Logistics.
• optimizing fleet operations for deliveries during the holiday season.
• Financial Services.
• Finding new ways to model financial data and isolating key global risk factors to make better investments.
• Artificial Intelligence.
• Making facets of artificial intelligence such as machine learning much more powerful when data sets are very large.

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