Quantum computing


How the information stored in the computer? 0’s and 1’s

What ever the information given, it will convert to binary format which machine can understand and store it.

For example 4 -> 0100

  • 0- 1st bit
  • 1-2nd bit
  • 0- 3rd bit
  • 0- 4th bit

So each bit is stored in 1 transistor.








  • Transistor is nothing but its act like a switch on/off, if its ON then the value will be 1, OFF – 0
  • In Traditional computers we may use trillion number of transistors inside the processor to perform the operation.
  • The speed will be total number transistors and the frequency of the processor.
  • It works on the probability – not immediately, it will take some time to process the data.




Atoms are made of extremely tiny particles called protons,  neutrons, and electronsProtons and  neutrons are in the center of the atom, making up the nucleus. Electrons surround the nucleus. Protons have a positive charge. Electrons have a negative charge.







  • Sub-atomic is not obey the physics, so it is called Quantum physics.
  • The electron is not in a consistent state, its spinning up and spinning down when we do the measurement so its really challenging to the scientists.
  • But they are taking that as advantages.

Moor’s Law Statistics

Moorslaw (1)

Gordon Moore the co-founder of Intel

  • Moore’s law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.
  • Observed and predicted in 1965
  • 1965-2012 period the theory is working perfect
  • If we reduce less than 5nm, it will create Quantum tunneling problem.
  • i4 and i5 process transistor size is 14nm, its 500 times lesser than our 1 red blood cell.

Quantum tunneling

Energy loss will be happening when electron flow from one side another side






Bits Vs Qubits

Screenshot_20180807-1755412-768x425Traditional vs Quantum

















Super position

We don’t know which position the electron is currently, it may be 0 or 1








  • Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance.
  • The whole concept of Quantum Entanglement is about correlation. What Quantum Entanglement means is that if one of the two Entangled particles are to be observed then it’ll automatically determine the results for the remaining one.


Scientists Propose a ‘Mirror Universe’ Where Time Moves Backwards





QuantumEntanglement (1)

  • There will be 1 lakh cash bag in one room out of 1000 rooms, the normal computers will compare each and find out, but quantum computer will find easily at a time open 500 rooms and check.
  • IBM, google, Microsoft
  • Google is lead – announced 72 qubit universal quantum computers (2^72) – learn AI, molecular structure, medical things.

Applications of quantum computing

  • Medicine & Materials.
  • complexity of molecular and chemical interactions.
  • Supply Chain & Logistics.
  • optimizing fleet operations for deliveries during the holiday season.
  • Financial Services.
  • Finding new ways to model financial data and isolating key global risk factors to make better investments.
  • Artificial Intelligence.
  • Making facets of artificial intelligence such as machine learning much more powerful when data sets are very large.


Digital Twin- next level of digital transformation

A digital twin can be defined, fundamentally, as an evolving digital profile of the historical and current behavior of a physical object or process that helps optimize business performance.

Throughout the product development life cycle, right from the design phase to the deployment phase, organizations can have a complete digital foot print of their products. These ‘connected digital things’ generate data in real time, and this helps businesses in better analyze and predict the problems in advance or give early warnings, prevent downtime, develop new opportunities and even plan better products for the future at lower costs by using simulations.


All these will have a greater impact on delivering a better customer experience in business as well.




Digital Twins which incorporates Big Data, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML) and Internet of Things are key in Industry 4.0 and are predominantly used in the Industrial Internet of Things, engineering, and manufacturing business space. The widespread reach and usage of the Internet of Things have made the Digital Twins more cost-effective and accessible for the business world.

3 key areas

  • Improvement in the manufacturing process.
  • Provide efficient predictive maintenance of existing products.
  • Developing new products based on real world usage of existing system.

How does a digital twin work?

  • Digital Twins, the virtual counterparts of the physical assets are created as digitized duplicates of machines/ equipment or physical sites using sensors.
  • These digital assets can be created even before an asset is built physically.
  • To create a digital twin of any physical asset, the engineers collect and synthesize data from various sources including physical data, manufacturing data, operational data and insights from analytics software. All this information along with AI algorithms is integrated into a physics-based virtual model and by applying Analytics into these models we get the relevant insights regarding the physical asset.
  • The consistent flow of data helps in getting the best possible analysis and insights regarding the asset which helps in optimizing the business outcome. Thus the digital twin will act as a live model of the physical equipment.

Digital Twin cloud platform



Siemens and Bentley Systems announce Plant Sight digital twin cloud services


Applications of Digital Twins

  • Manufacturing
  • Automobile
  • Retail
  • Healthcare
  • Smart Cities
  • Industrial IoT

save millions of dollars in maintenance costs and reduce product defects and shorten time to market.

Problems and benifits

Digital twins and IoT

digital twin enables a device-as-a-service.

Microsoft Azure IoT does have the concept of a ‘device twin’ that is part of their device management solution.

Amazon refers to a ‘device shadow’ as their version of a digital twin.

digital twin on IBM Watson IoT.

Digital twin vs. predictive twin

November 2017 article for Network World, contributor Deepak Puri outlined an example of an Oracle digital-twin tool that provides users with two options – a digital twin and a predictive twin.

The digital twin “can include a description of the devices, a 3D rendering and details on all the sensors in the device. It continuously generates sensor readings that simulate real life options.”

The predictive twin “models the future state and behavior of the device,”

Digital twins in the industry 4.0

Digital Twins is at the core of this new industrial revolution bringing an unlimited possibilities

It changes the traditional approach of ‘the first build and then tweak’ in the industrial world and brings in a more virtual system based design process that brings in the much more efficient role out of any equipment or system by understanding its unique features, performance, and potential issues if any.


specialized expertise in machine learning, artificial intelligence, predictive analytics and other data-science capabilities.

Features of C# 7.0






C# 7.0 Features

Last article we have looked the features of C# 6.0, so in this article we will see the features of C# 7.0

C# 7.0 March 2017 .NET Framework 4.6.2 Visual Studio 2017

out Keyword

The out parameter can be used to return the value in the same variable and as a parameter of the method, if any changes made to that parameter it will reflect the changes to that out variable.

In earlier version


In C# 7.0

Here no need to declare it separately, specify directly in the argument itself.



C# tuples as richer anonymous types, it’s a set of elements.


You can access name and age by referencing Item1 and Item2.

In C# 7.0

Here we can directly get the name and age instead of Item1 and Item2



Discards are equivalent to unassigned variables, that variable may not even be allocated storage

They don’t have names, instead, they are represented as a _ (underscore.)







Pattern Matching

It’s not new to C#, in the earlier version itself introduced but in the coming version its added some more features in the implementation.

  • Pattern matching has the ability to extract the data from the expression.
  • Pattern matching can be used with any data type including custom whereas if/else can only be used with primitive types.

In C# 7.0, introduced 2 more features like “Is expression” and “Switch case statement”

With “Is” pattern


Pattern with Switch…case statement

Now Switch…case statement also works with expression as well.


Ref local and returns

Ref Locals

Before C# 7.0 it was not possible to declare the return type with the ref modifier. While this feature was available using IL code, the feature was not reflected with C#. This changes with C# 7.0. However, before looking into this, let’s get into another new C# 7.0 feature: ref locals. Local variables can be declared with the ref modifier. Here, the variable x1 references variable x, and thus changing x1 changes x as well





output: local variable x after the change: 2

Ref Returns

The ref keyword can also be used with the return type. This allows code as shown in the following code snippet. Here, an array of type int is declared and initialized. In the next line, a local ref variable is declared that references the first element of the array. This variable is then returned in the last statement of the method






Local Functions

Local functions enable you to define a function within the scope of another method to help in promoting encapsulation and bring local variables into scope.











More expression-bodied members

Expression-bodied methods was introduced with C# 6.0, that simplify the syntactic expression for methods in C#. We have seen this for Methods and Properties in the previous version of C#. C# 7.0 extend this features for several new members including constructor, destructor, property assessors etc.

In earlier version







In C# 7.0







Throw expression

C# 7.0 introduces throw expressions. We can add exception throwing to expression-bodied members, null-coalescing expressions and conditional expressions. This blog post introduces throw expressions, demonstrates how to use them and also provides a peek behind a compiled throw expression.

Throw expression

Generalized async return type

Running a Task from async methods can introduce performance bottlenecks in certain paths.

Ever since C# 5.0 when the async/await pattern was introduced, the only supported return types were Task<TResult>, Task, and void

Generalized asyn return

If the directory is empty, the known space is 0 and there is no need for an asynchronous thread to calculate the size.  However, since Task<long> is the return, it still needs to be instantiated.

By using ValueTask<….> we don’t want to instantiate the Task<long>, it can return Task or Task<long> and so on.

New_Generalized asyn return

Numeric literal syntax improvements

The digit separator “_” can be used inside number literals now. The purpose of a digit separator is to improve readability, nothing more

public const int One = 0b0001;

public const int Two = 0b0010;

public const int Four = 0b0100;

public const int Eight = 0b1000;

public const int Sixteen = 0b0001_0000;

Note: 0b -> indicates as binary



I hope this article will help much to understand the features of C# 7.0, in the next article we will see the features of C# 7.1 and 7.2

Features of C# 7.1 and 7.2


C# 7.1 Features

In the previous article we have looked in to the features of C# 7.0,  in this article we will see the some of the features  introduced in C# 7.1 and 7.2

C# 7.1 August 2017 .NET Framework 4.6.2 Visual Studio 2017 version 15.3

Default literal expressions

When we declare the local function or variable or methods until C#7.0 we need to instantiate that in the code, but the newer version of C# not necessary to create a default type of that value.

In C# 7.0

Old_Default literals

In C# 7.1

Here we don’t want to specify the type of the function or variable, by default its taking.





Tuple Name inferred

The names of tuple elements can be inferred from tuple initialization in many cases.

In C# 7.0







In C# 7.1

Here we don’t want to give the name, its taking from the variable name itself.


Async and Await in Main method

The purpose of it is for situations where your main method calls one or more async methods directly. Prior to C# 7.1, you had to introduce a degree of ceremony to that main method.








In C# 7.1









Pattern Matching with Generics

We have already got enough information about Pattern matching in C# 6.0 itself, now in C# 7.0 added some additional feature like “Pattern Matching with Generics”, in the previous version there is a design flow in the pattern matching with switch case statement.


Here the compiler indicates an error, because we cannot match the pattern with generics, so in order to avoid the problem in the next version introduced the feature.












C# 7.2 Features

Private Protected

This is the new access modifier in C#, previously we had private, public, protected and so on, this feature is enable the possibility to access the private member from the parent class and that too within the same assembly.


Non-trailing named arguments

In C# 4.0 a new type of argument is introduced known as a named parameter. Using this feature, we can specify the value of a parameter by parameter name regardless of its ordering in the method.

Non-trailing named arguments








Here we can give the parameter in any order with the specified named parameter.

Leading underscores in numeric literals

The implementation of support for digit separators in C# 7.0 didn’t allow them _ to be the first character of the literal value. Hex and binary numeric literals may now begin with an _.

Reference semantics with value type

out: option to set the value

ref: Should set the value before passing it.

in: This method does not modify the value of the argument used as this parameter.

The “in” keyword specifies that you are passing the parameter by reference and the called method does not modify the value passed to it.



I hope this article will help much to understand the features of C# 7.1 and 7.2.


C# 6.0 Features Overview

C# 6.0 Features.

C# is a general-purpose programming language, it’s an elegant and type-safe object-oriented language that enables developers to build a variety of robust, secure applications in .NET framework.

C# 6.0 July 2015 .NET Framework 4.6 Visual Studio 2015

Read-Only Properties

Properties are an extension of data field in C#, data fields are not directly accessible from outside class, we must use the GET, SET methods to access it.






In general, read only properties allows the properties to set only inside the scope, outside classes can only read.






In C# 6.0, it is not necessary to specify the private set, by default it’s a read-only property when we don’t have a SETTER





Auto-Property Initializer

An auto-property initializer allows you to set the value of the property at the same time you declare it in a class, in the earlier version we need to set the property value in the constructor.

In earlier version of C#








In C# 6.0

Auto-Property Initializers



Expression bodied function member

Expression-bodied function members allow properties, methods, operators and other function members to have bodies as lambda like expressions instead of statement blocks. Thus, reducing lines of codes and clear view of the expressions.

In earlier version of C#, the function will be like.





In C# 6.0


So, we can directly write the body as an expression here.

Using static

The using static enhancement; enables you to import the static methods of single class. Previously, the using statement imported all types in a namespace.

In earlier version





C# 6.0





Null-conditional operators

It’s a new feature in C# 6.0 which will bring more productivity for the developers by reducing the number of lines.

In earlier version




In C# 6.0




String interpolation

This feature inserts values into a string with simple syntax. It is similar to string.Format, but variables may be accessed directly (not through index arguments).

In earlier version





In C# 6.0






Exception filters

If you want to use Exception Filter, you have to declare it in the same line where you declared the catch block, just like this: catch (Exception ex) if (FilterIsTrue). Here, if the parenthesized expression after the “if” returns true, the associated catch block will execute. Otherwise, it will move forward.









nameof Expressions

Evaluates to the name of a symbol

In earlier version






In C# 6.0






Await in catch and finally blocks

In earlier version of C# itself we can use try, catch and finally blocks together but was not able to use the Async and await in catch and finally blocks, so the next version of C# 6.0 introduces the features to use the await in catch {} and finally {} blocks without any complicated structure.

The await operator is applied to a task in an asynchronous method suspend the execution of the method until awaited task completes, the asynchronous method in which await is used much be modified by the Async keyword.








Index initializers

Initializing dictionaries and other objects with indexers is less elegant. We are adding a new syntax to object initializers allowing you to set values to keys through any indexer that the new object has

In earlier version







In C# 6.0









I hope this article would help to understand the features of C# 6.0, in the next article we will see the features of C# 7.0

GIDS 2017

Mr. S. Sheik Mohamed

Ramarson Technology Developers LLP, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India.

Great Indian Developer Summit (GIDS) 2017 at Bangalore.


GIDS is one of the best developer summit in India, it’s an excellent opportunity to upgrade our knowledge to the current  Market requirements, speakers from all over the world shared  their knowledge and current trends in the IT industry. There are lots of delegates participated in that event, they talks about 10 important technologies to change the developers landscape, which is a highlight in the GIDS 2017. The speaker Mr. Arun Gupta – vice president of developer advocacy at couchbase explains the technologies and concepts very interestingly to the audience. He gave the summery about Containers, Micro services, CI & CD, DevOps, IoT, Server less, Virtual & Augmented reality, AI & Machine learning, Block chain, ChatOps, he explained  the overview of these  technologies and how they lead in the technology world in few years  to the developers concerns and how they change the developers activities and so on.



The interesting thing was about the containerization concepts, because the deployment is really painful when we are building the large scale application and deploy into the customer side. The developers are facing so much of problem while fixing it in the customer side, so the containers will overcome those problems and make a smooth deployment in the customer side. Now a day the containers play a vital role and great feature for the developers to make the life easier. Followed by a lot of speaker explains the trends and technologies about cloud platform from Amazon, Google, etc., they talks about how the cloud is playing the important role in the current industry and 12 factors to cloud success and how Docker image is important and what benefits its bring out from kubernetes in the deployment also interesting in the GIDS.

Now a days IoT is one of the hot topics in the industry, people are moving towards more and more to automate the things to reduce the human efforts. I gained some clear picture about how the systems are connected each other and how they  are talking thru the cloud platform, little things about UPnP protocols in the Internet Of Things, how its evolving in the technologies are very interesting.



Mr. Venkat Subramaniam, founder of agile developer explains the Functional to Reactive programming techniques.  He performed a coding  session about concepts like Functional compositions, Lazy evaluation, immutability, declarative programming vs Imperative programming, it  really grabbed  the attention of developer, and got good understating about why the reactive programming is important to the developers, how its changing their life, how do we become a smart programmers in the software development and so on.

Finally, GIDS 2017 was really very interesting event I attended this month and it brings a lot to know for the software developers to become a smart developer in the world!!!

Summary of “Golang”


For the past few days I was engaged in learning a new programming language called “Golang”, it’s a simple programming language for developing robust scalable software applications. I have explored many new things in the learning session.  I would like to share my ideas and my learning experiences On Golang programming language.

Go Vs other programming languages?


Golang is a general purpose programming language which can compete with C and C++ languages, Go has a simple syntax with a minimum set of standard key words, the interesting thing with Go is, one can build complex applications, with simple programming model. We can put our effort in higher level abstract things. When we look the syntax of Golang, it eliminates lot of standard which are usual in C#, Java or C++. Go inherits many concepts from C language. To give few example, like how simple the language is, we don’t need to specify a semicolon (;) to terminate the line, no access modifiers in Golang. We can do it by declaring the function name starting with upper case or lower case. Most important things are, its compilation time is much faster than other languages, and even compiling very large projects is done in few minutes.

Generally, it eliminates some standard patterns from Programming Language Theory, the language designers have made it simpler to achieve more performance in critical real world application. The compiler directly converts from high level language to machine language, i.e. we don’t need any intermediate steps like JVM for Java, so the compiler quickly builds the application. Once the basic syntax in “Golang” is familiarized, we can develop application with its inbuilt standard packages without depending on any 3rd party Frameworks/tools.

Go for Fresher’s than experienced developers


I would say comparatively Golang will be more attractive to the fresh software engineers than the experienced developers, because when we start working with Golang its provide very simple syntax to concurrent programs. The learning curve is bit faster, but for the experience developers it will take some time to understand the core benefits of Golang programming language because for the past few years If someone developed their real world application using Microsoft technologies or any other technologies, it will not be so easy to quickly adapt this new language, it will take some time to understand the language features. Once core concepts are understood, one can build real world applications.

“Unlearn something to learn new things”

Go syntax is really different than other programming language, for example: We don’t need while loop but we can achieve the same thing via “for” loop, so by learning one looping statement we can do the same thing what we did for other programming languages, so it gives flexibility to build the application.

Concurrency with GO


I have learned concurrency mechanism in this session. It is one the core feature of GO, very useful and we can use the standard library packages rather than using any additional packages like a TPL and so on, with simple keyword we can execute multiple function concurrently using the keyword “go” calling a routine, so the go routines will be running independently and automatically, this will increase the performance as well, here the channel is playing the important roll to synchronize the go routines.

Go with Interfaces

Go provide language features like interface and inheritance. Similar concepts like in other languages, we achieve the same thing what we achieve in other programming languages like C#, which means I would not say Go programming language is perfect object oriented programming languages.

Comparing to other Object Oriented languages. Go is much simpler, for defining the interfaces and types and implementing those interfaces by concrete methods on respective struct, so the compiler will check who are all implementing those methods from the Interface, they can have an access to the interfaces. Its bit difficult to grasp or understand the things who came from traditional object oriented programming.

Go With Web

We can create web application using standard library package called “http” and some sub packages as well, here the http middle ware stuffs is interesting to manage the shared functionalities, i.e. log the application trigger or any other authentication mechanism in the real world application and so on. JWT is also important concept to understand the token based message exchanging mechanism of JSON data across the client and server.  There are lot of built in packages available to extend the application and customize more.

Unit testing


This particular section was really interesting for writing unit test for our application, here we are simply using the “testing” shared library packages and start writing the unit testing, for the assertion we can use Omega packages, but we don’t want to mention the packages as well, there are lot of interesting points in the unit testing, because it provides some interesting features like “Benchmark” test, it is really useful to benchmark the flow and produce the average result across different scenario, another interesting things is we can run the unit tests in  parallel and can skip some long running unit tests using a flag by command line.


Overall the session was really useful to understand the concept of new programming language and to understand why its differ from other languages and so on, for me the interesting features which attracted myself to GOLANG   is its concurrency, channels, interfaces, inheritance, unit testing, packages, so overall Go is a language, easy to learn for fresher’s compare to the other experienced developers, because they can quickly understand and adopt. An experienced C# developer, will take some time to understand the changes, if someone is open minded and willing to unlearn some standard programming concepts he learned and practiced in Java or C#.

One needs to put some more effort and change the way he programs to speed up the learning process and use Go for building complex robust scalable solutions.

Thanks to Mr. Siju Varghese, Solution Architect who specializes in Go cloud and Docker.

Clean Coding

I would like to share my knowledge about clean coding practices in the software development.

Everyone can do the coding but we are not sure whether it’s a quality code or professional code, it become a habit of writing a clean code, programming is not only solving the problem but its telling what is the way we are choosing to solving the problem, is that aspects clean coding is playing one of the major role in the software development.


In my point of view clean code should bring the following points.

  • Other developers can understand what we have written.
  • Extendibility.
  • Avoid duplication.
  • ……
  • …..

Simple example


The above is doing the addition operation, it should work but it’s not professional coding practices, I have to ask few questions like what is a, b and Do? and so on.


What about this code? Everyone can easily understand what it is doing and so on, so this is one of the ways of writing the clean code.

Always we have to keep in mind the following things while writing the coding.

  • Proper naming (class, methods, members, properties and so on).
  • Documentation.
  • SOLID principles.
  • Think about future.
  • Write unit tests.
  • Refactor if it’s not readable.
  • Put the classes in the proper namespace.
  • Consistency
  • Culture independent.
  • Machine independent.
  • Easy to configure the system.
  • Memory leaking issues.
  • Think about performance issues.
  • Error handling

Those points are very important and it’s not enough to write the professional code, we need to learn more about best practices and defining rules within the team and develop a code.


Initially it will be hard to follow all the points, but once love this and practice it, it will come naturally and you will become great professional developers.